I gave a musicology lecture the other days which focused on a number of techniques introduced by musicologist Phil Tagg. They are
Sonic Anaphone: Where the music extract resembles what it represents.For example motorbike sounds. For me this is similar to Charles Pierce’s ‘Icon’.
Kinetic Anaphone: Where the sound represents movement. For example here is an example of a piece that sounds like a moving train.
Tactile Anaphone: Where the sounds represents touch. For example soft string sounds or a gravelly voice.
Genre Synecdoche: Where a small aspect of the mix alludes to a larger genre. For example the following track by Shakti is not just a mix of european and Indian music – but alludes to the whole culture of latter also.
Episodic Marker: Where a musical sound or texture informs the listener that a new section in a piece of music is about to occur. This could be a drum fill, a guitar slide etc.
In the lecture we also examined Intentional or Extensional aspects of performance: essentially is the meaning of a piece of music related to a score (extensional) – or is musician interaction more important. Here is a great example of Pink Floyd involved in the latter.
Finally, we examined the ways in which time and place can impact a performance or recording. For example places such as Headley Grange (Led Zep) and Joe Meek’s recordings at 304 Holloway Rd – how did they impact the creative process and the sound of the recording.
Anyway – I would love to hear any indicative examples of these techniques.